In all cases of first aid, it is important to:
– ensure the place of the accident;
– take preventive measures so that the situation does not worsen;
– establish contact with the sick or injured person;
– act appropriately when the injured or sick person is unconscious;
– relieves pain;
Intervention if a person is unconscious
In this situation, the speed with which it is acted is of the utmost importance. Examination and treatment should be carried out quickly. In order for the aid to be effective, an assessment of the signs, of the clear indications demonstrating the lack of consciousness, must first be carried out. This is achieved only through study and training.
The pain can be alleviated by the application of bandages, by immobilization with a suitable transportation.
Those who provide first aid come into direct contact with people, who are injured, intoxicated or who may be suffering from a communicable disease. As such, self-protection measures are necessary for the intervener. That’s why:
– In people poisoned with toxic substances sprayed: wash thoroughly with clean water their face, before performing artificial breathing maneuvers.
– In people intoxicated with gas in a closed room: before first aid is given, we will call specialist personnel to remove the victims from the toxic environment. Prevention of contamination with blood-borne diseases (eg. hepatitis B and AIDS)
– Artificial breathing maneuver: theoretically, the only risk may be the blood in the victim’s mouth. Apply a filter material to the injured person’s face.
– When stopping the bleeding: theoretically, the only risk is only if the first aid provider has injuries. In this case:
– he will bandage his wounds;
– if the injured person bleeds and is unconsciousness, press on the hemorrhagic area using a thick layer of fabric or compress with the hand covered by a waterproof material to avoid contact with the victim’s blood;
– after caring for an injured person, carefully wash your hands with soap and water!
Resuscitation should only be performed on individuals who are unconscious, not breathing and have a possible interruption of blood circulation (no pulse). A person in this situation is in a coma. The purpose of resuscitation is to remove the patient from this situation and prevent death.
It is extremely important for the brain to have a continuous flow of oxygen. Brain cells can tolerate only a short interruption of oxygen flow, usually between 3-5 minutes.
Examination and Treatment
Shake the injured man’s shoulder and shout, “Are you awake?” If there is no reaction:
– call for help; open the air paths, see if the patient is breathing (for this, use only 5 seconds!).
– If the patient is not breathing: palpate the pulse (for this, use only 5 seconds).
– If he does not breathe, but has a pulse: – start artificial respiration.
– If he does not breathe and has no pulse: – start cardio-pulmonary resuscitation maneuvers. The pulse is examined in the neck, by palpation with the index and middle fingers on the side of the Adam’s apple, in the hollow between the trachea and the neck muscle (carotid artery).
Opening air access paths
When the first aid person provides the opening of the air access paths to a person unconscious, first of all he must remove all visible foreign bodies, which close his mouth and throat. Then tilt the injured man’s head back: place one hand on his forehead and with two fingers from the other hand lift the mandible without closing the injured man’s mouth.
Artificial breathing (mouth-to-mouth method)
– After opening the air access paths, check that the patient is breathing.
– Check if the patient has a pulse.
– Block the patient’s nostrils between two fingers; inhale air and check that the rib cage is raised. Use two seconds for each breath.
– Let the air out and check for the chest to decompress. Keep the injured man’s head in the same position.
CARDIAC RESUSCITATION (try only in situations of maximum urgency, the maneuver can be dangerous for the injured if not performed properly)
– Find the appropriate place of pressure.
– Locate the sternum
– The pressure point will be above the lower limit of the sternum, at a distance of 2 fingers.
– Place the palm of your hand over the pressing point and the other palm over the first. Lift your fingers off the chest cavity.
– Press straight down, 80-100 times/min.
– Press from top to bottom approx. 4-5 cm in an adult. If the patient is not breathing and has no pulse, perform 15 external chest compressions on two breaths (cardio-respiratory resuscitation).